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2,4,5-TMBA, a Natural Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2, Suppresses Adipogenesis and Promotes Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Wu, Man-Ru, Hou, Ming-Hon, Lin, Ya-Lin, Kuo, Chia-Feng
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2012 v.60 no.29 pp. 7262-7269
acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocytes, adverse effects, binding proteins, coatings, cultured cells, drugs, gene expression regulation, hydrolysis, in vitro studies, in vivo studies, leaves, lipogenesis, lipolysis, mitogen-activated protein kinase, obesity, roots, seeds, transcription factors, triacylglycerol lipase
Obesity is a global health problem. Because of the high costs and side effects of obesity-treatment drugs, the potential of natural products as alternatives for treating obesity is under exploration. 2,4,5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde (2,4,5-TMBA) present in plant roots, seeds, and leaves was reported to be a significant inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Because COX-2 is associated with differentiation of preadipocytes, the murine 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with 100 μg/mL of 2,4,5-TMBA during differentiation and after the cells were fully differentiated to study the effect of 2,4,5-TMBA on adipogenesis and lipolysis. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride assay revealed that 2,4,5-TMBA inhibited the formation of lipid droplets during differentiation; moreover, 2,4,5-TMBA down-regulated the protein levels of adipogenic signaling molecules and transcription factors MAP kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, β, and δ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1), and the rate-limiting enzyme for lipid synthesis acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In fully differentiated adipocytes, treatment with 2,4,5-TMBA for 72 h significantly decreased lipid accumulation by increasing the hydrolysis of triglyceride through suppression of perilipin A (lipid droplet coating protein) and up-regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). The results of this in vitro study will pioneer future in vivo studies on antiobesity effects of 2,4,5-TMBA and selective COX-2 inhibitors.