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GFLV-infection and in vitro behaviour of infected plant material of three typical Andalusian grapevine cultivars

Troncoso, A., Cantos, M., Paneque, P., Paneque, G., Weiland, C., Perez-Camacho, F.
Acta horticulturae 2004 no.652 pp. 359-365
Xiphinema index, cultivars, field experimentation, geographical distribution, in vitro culture, juvenility, plant age, plant density, rootstocks, scions, stem elongation, vineyards, virus transmission, viruses, wine quality
The percentage of GFLV-affected plants and its geographical distribution, in “Palomino Garrido Fino”, “Zalema” and “Pedro Ximénez” grapevine cultivars from respectively “Aljarafe” of Sevilla, “Condado de Huelva” of Huelva and “Montilla-Moriles” of Córdoba were determined. All the plots in “Aljarafe” zone presented some plants with virus (average 14.2%), and higher incidence in the North (> 20%) than in the South (< 6%). The “Zalema” GFLV-distribution was more heterogeneous, being the central area, with better wine quality, that with lower virus-attack (8.7%). The infection average of this cultivar was 27.5%. In the “Montilla-Moriles” zone, the infection average was 26.2% and the geographical distribution was very heterogeneous. Nevertheless the vineyards with higher virus attack appear grouped. This area was the only with some plots free of GFLV presence. No relation was established between GFLV-infection and plant density or rootstock type and low relationship was found with plant age, bad cultural conditions and Xiphinema index or italiae. The use of non controlled GFLV-infected scion for grafting was the most important way of virus transmission. The in vitro culture was a good method for the obtaining of GFLV free plants, reaching even 100%. The in vitro culture was also interesting to establish differences between the non-infected and infected plant material, according to the in vitro plant stem growth, being significantly lower in the infected one. In a field experiment with “Zalema” cultivar, signs of juvenility (very high growth, red colour and pubescens in leaves and no production) were observed in the growing scions the first year after grafting. In the following years those sings disappeared and the production was practically two-fold of the normal field surrounding plants.