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Effects of saline sodic conditions on growth of globe artichoke, cardoon and wild cardoon

Graifenberg, A., Curadi, M., Botrini, L., Giustiniani, L.
Acta horticulturae 2004 no.660 pp. 327-332
Cynara cardunculus, artichokes, buds, calcium, cardoons, containers, domestication, greenhouses, mortality, plant tissues, rain, salinity, salt concentration, salt tolerance, sandy soils, seedlings, seeds, sodium, sodium chloride, winter, Italy
In order to evaluate salt tolerance of the subspecies belonging to the species Cynara cardunculus L., and to examine the change of this character following the process of domestication, plants of artichoke (C. cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus), cardoon (C. cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus) and wild cardoon (C. cardunculus L. subsp. sylvestris) were irrigated with rain water supplied with 0, 2, 4 and 8 g/l of NaCl. Seeds of cv."044", cv. "Gigante di Lucca" and wild cardoon plants from Monti della Tolfa (Rome, Italy) were used for artichoke, cardoon and wild cardoon, respectively. Seedlings were transplanted in late winter in containers filled with sandy soil and placed in a greenhouse. Plant fresh and dry weight, Na, Cl, K and Ca content (% dry matter) in different plant tissues were determined. Data have shown that wild cardoon was the most salt-sensible subspecies, with the 80% of plant mortality at the highest salinity (8 g/l NaCl). Artichoke and cardoon have presented the same behaviour in relation to the plant fresh and dry weight in saline conditions. However, artichoke was less salt-sensitive than cardoon, for its ability to produce buds even at the highest salt concentration.