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Artichoke response to nitrogen form ratio under saline conditions

Elia, A., Santamaria, P., Serio, F.
Acta horticulturae 2004 no.660 pp. 455-460
Cynara cardunculus, artichokes, calcium, chlorides, cultivars, genotype, growth chambers, hybrids, hydroponics, leaves, magnesium, nitrates, nitrogen, nitrogen content, nutrient solutions, potassium, roots, salinity, shoots, wilting
Two artichoke genotypes [Cynara cardunculus (L.) subsp. scolymus Hayek, cv. 137, a seed-propagated hybrid, and cv. Brindisino, a 'Catanese' type, vegetatively propagated] were hydroponically grown in a growth chamber from the 8th leaf stage in pots filled with nutrient solution and for a period of 52 days. Plants were subjected to two levels of salinity (1.2 and 8 dS/m) of nutrient solutions and at two ratios between ammonium and nitrate (NH4+:NO3- 0:1 and 1:1) both at a N concentration of 8 mM. After 22 days of treatments, the number, the length, and the dry matter of leaves were lower with 8 dS/m than 1.2 dS/m by 42, 32, and 54%, respectively. Growth was reduced more in 'Brindisino' than in 'cv. 137' plants. Leaves were more sensitive to salinity compared to roots. In addition to reduction in the growth indices and leaf number, other symptoms were wilting of basal leaves and greater thickness of leaf blades. Both the mixed N form and the highest salinity level reduced the uptake of NO3-, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, but increased the uptake of Na+ and Cl- in both cultivars. This led to lower K+/Na+ ratios compared to plants grown either in nitrate or non-saline solution. Nitrogen chemical forms did not show effects on shoots, but the mixed N form further improved the accumulation of Cl- and the reduction of NO3-, K+, and Ca2+ in the leaves, thus resulting in an enhanced detrimental effect of the highest EC level.