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Seasonal variation of Verticillium dahliae isolation from artichoke

Ortega, A., Rubio, R., García-Molina, L., Vicent, A., Beltrán, R., Armengol, J., García-Jiménez, J.
Acta horticulturae 2004 no.660 pp. 517-522
Verticillium dahliae, ambient temperature, artichokes, autumn, leaves, seasonal variation, spring, sprouting, winter
In order to assess the variation of V. dahliae isolation in artichoke during a cropping season, six different artichoke-affected fields were studied. Twenty five plants from each field were randomly selected and systematically analyzed monthly by isolation from leaves, from October to June, for the presence of V. dahliae. Isolation frequencies were variable for each field, but in general, V. dahliae was more frequently isolated in autumn. In winter, isolation frequencies were lower and, in some cases V. dahliae was not detected. Finally, in spring isolation frequencies increased again. These periods are related with environmental temperatures and correspond with the occurrence of foliar symptoms that are severe in autumn, after sprouting, and in late spring at the end of the cropping season but, usually, some plants recover from disease during winter. In all studied fields the total number of infected plants increased progressively during the cropping season, although new infected plants were detected only in autumn and spring. This result also shows that these are the best periods to evaluate the presence of V. dahliae on artichoke plants.