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Differential susceptibility of agricultural weeds to ultraviolet-B radiation

Author:
Furness, N.H., Upadhyaya, M.K.
Source:
Canadian journal of plant science 2002 v.82 no.4 pp. 789-796
ISSN:
0008-4220
Subject:
seedling growth, greenhouses, tillering, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, seedlings, shoots, Setaria viridis, leaf area, scanning electron microscopy, Persicaria maculosa, Amaranthus retroflexus, weeds, biomass, ultraviolet radiation, Stellaria media, leaves, crops
Abstract:
Differential morphological sensitivity of weed species to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (290-320 nm) may alter competitive relationships among weeds and associated crop species as the level of this radiation changes. In order to determine relative sensitivity of common chickweed [Stellaria media (L.) Vill.], green foxtail (Setaria viridis L.), lady's-thumb (Polygonum persicaria L.), lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium album L.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.) to this radiation, seedlings were grown under 0, 7, and 11 kJ m(-2) d(-1) of biologically effective UV-B radiation in a greenhouse for 6 wk. The influence of UV-B radiation on seedling growth and morphology was investigated. UV-B radiation reduced shoot height in green foxtail (by up to 41%), lamb's-quarters, and redroot pigweed, and increased tillering in green foxtail seedlings. Leaf area and leaf biomass in common chickweed, green foxtail, lamb's-quarters, and shepherd's-purse, and stalk biomass in common chickweed, green foxtail, lamb's-quarters, redroot pigweed and shepherd's-purse declined in response to UV-B radiation. In common chickweed, leaf area was reduced by 74% at 11 kJ m(-2) d(-1). Root biomass was reduced by UV-B radiation in all species (up to 68% at 11 kJ m(-2) d(-1) in common chickweed) except lady's-thumb. Specific leaf weight increased and leaf area ratio declined in response to UV-B radiation in common chickweed and shepherd's-purse. Exposure to UV-B radiation increased the leaf weight ratio in common chickweed. Shoot:root ratios increased in response to UV-B radiation in common chickweed and redroot pigweed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed collapsed epidermal cells in occasional necrotic regions on adaxial leaf surfaces of redroot pigweed grown under 11 kJ m(-2) d(-1) UV-B radiation. Morphology and growth of lady's-thumb were not affected by UV-B radiation. This study suggests that common agricultural weeds have differential morphological and growth responses to UV-B-enhanced environments. Sensitivity to UV-B radiation was greatest for common chickweed and least for lady's-thumb and redroot pigweed.
Agid:
318967