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Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)
- Souza, Marcy J., Sanchez-Maigallon Guzman, David, Paul-Murphy, Joanne R., Cox, Sherry K.
- American journal of veterinary research 2012 v.73 no.8 pp. 1142-1147
- Amazona, adults, analgesia, blood, females, high performance liquid chromatography, intravenous injection, males, metabolites, oral administration, parrots, pharmacokinetics
- Objective: To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals: 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Procedures: Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from −5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from −5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were < 40 ng/mL for the entire time period, but oral administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in mean plasma concentrations > 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.