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Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)
- Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David, Souza, Marcy J., Braun, Jana M., Cox, Sherry K., Keuler, Nicholas S., Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.
- American journal of veterinary research 2012 v.73 no.8 pp. 1148-1152
- Amazona, adults, analgesic effect, drugs, oral administration, parrots
- Objective: To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals: 15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures: 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). Results: For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and −0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.