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Toxicokinetics of norditerpenoid alkaloids from low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) orally administered to cattle

Green, Benedict T., Welch, Kevin D., Gardner, Dale R., Stegelmeier, Bryan L., Pfister, James A., Cook, Daniel, Panter, Kip E.
American journal of veterinary research 2012 v.73 no.8 pp. 1318-1324
Angus, Delphinium bicolor, beef cattle, blood serum, crates, diterpenoid alkaloids, half life, heart rate, lethal dose 50, mice, oral administration, pharmacokinetics, poisoning, steers
Objective: To determine the toxicokinetics of N-(methylsuccinimido)anthranoyllycoctonine–type low larkspur alkaloids in beef cattle. Animals: 5 Black Angus steers and 35 Swiss Webster mice. Procedures: Low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) was collected, dried, ground, and administered to 5 steers via oral gavage to provide a dose of 12 mg of N-(methylsuccinimido)-anthranoyllycoctonine alkaloids/kg. Steers were housed in metabolism crates for 96 hours following larkspur administration; heart rate was monitored continuously, and blood samples were collected periodically for analysis of serum concentrations of 16-deacetylgeyerline, methyllycaconitine, geyerline, and nudicauline and assessment of kinetic parameters. The LD50 of a total alkaloid extract from D andersonii was determined in Swiss Webster mice. Results: The alkaloids were quickly absorbed, with a maximum serum concentration achieved within 18 hours after administration. Geyerline and nudicauline coeluted as 1 peak and were considered together for toxicokinetic analysis. Mean ± SD elimination half-life was 18.4 ± 4.4 hours, 15.6 ± 1.5 hours, and 16.5 ± 5.1 hours for 16-deacetylgeyerline, methyllycaconitine, and geyerline and nudicauline, respectively. There were significant differences in maximum serum concentration, amount absorbed, and distribution half-life among the 4 alkaloids. The mouse LD50 was 9.8 mg/kg. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Results suggested that clinical poisoning was likely to be most severe approximately 18 hours after exposure. Cattle should be closely monitored for at least 36 hours after initial exposure. Additionally, a withdrawal time of approximately 7 days would be required to clear > 99% of the toxic alkaloids from the serum of cattle that have ingested low larkspur.