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Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Capsaicinoids in Rats Fed Diets with or without Cholesterol

Zhang, Lei, Fang, Guoshan, Zheng, Longhui, Chen, Zongdao, Liu, Xiong
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013 v.61 no.18 pp. 4287-4293
bile, bile acids, binding proteins, cholesteremic effect, cholesterol, cholesterol 7alpha-monooxygenase, diet, feces, gene expression regulation, ileum, liver, messenger RNA, rats
The potential mechanism of the hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched and cholesterol-free diets was determined. Capsaicinoids favorably modified the lipoprotein profile of rats. Capsaicinoids consumption down-regulated the mRNA levels of hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase by 0.55-fold and hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) by 0.53-fold in the cholesterol-free diet group (P < 0.05) but up-regulated the CYP7A1 level by 1.38-fold in the cholesterol-enriched diet group (P < 0.05). It also increased the expression levels of ileal bile acid binding protein and apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in the ileum, as well as transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 in the liver and ileum in the different groups. Capsaicinoids reduced the amount of bile acids in feces by −15.97% and contents of the small intestine by −9.64% in the cholesterol-free diet group (P < 0.05) but increased both by 13.06% and 10.20%, respectively, in the cholesterol-enriched diet group. The cholesterol-lowering action of capsaicinoids in the cholesterol-free diet group was attributed to the inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, whereas that in the cholesterol-enriched diet group was attributed to the stimulation of the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and the increasing excretions of bile acids in feces.