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Fusarium Damage in Small Cereal Grains from Western Canada. 2. Occurrence of Fusarium Toxins and Their Source Organisms in Durum Wheat Harvested in 2010
- Tittlemier, Sheryl A., Roscoe, Mike, Trelka, Robert, Gaba, Don, Chan, Jason
M., Patrick, Susan K., Sulyok, Michael, Krska, Rudolf, McKendry, Twylla, Gräfenhan, Tom
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013 v.61 no.23 pp. 5438-5448
- seeds, Parastagonospora nodorum, durum wheat, Fusarium avenaceum, deoxynivalenol, Canada
- Samples of Canadian western amber durum harvested in 2010 were obtained as part of the Canadian Grain Commission Harvest Sample Program, inspected, and graded according to Canadian guidelines. A subset of Fusarium-damaged samples were analyzed for Fusarium species as well as mycotoxins associated with these species, including deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes, moniliformin, enniatins, and beauvericin. Overall, Fusarium avenaceum and F. graminearum were the top two most frequently recovered species. Phaeosphaeria nodorum (a.k.a. Septoria nodorum), F. culmorum, F. poae, F. acuminatum, and F. sporotrichioides were observed in samples as well. All samples analyzed for mycotoxins contained quantifiable concentrations of enniatins, whereas beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, and moniliformin were measured in approximately 75% of the samples. Concentrations in Fusarium-damaged samples ranged from 0.011 to 34.2 mg/kg of enniatins plus beauvericin, up to 4.7 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol, and up to 6.36 mg/kg of moniliformin. Comparisons of enniatins, beauvericin, and moniliformin concentrations to the occurrence of various Fusarium species suggest the existence of an infection threshold above which these emerging mycotoxins are present at higher concentrations. The current grading factor of Fusarium-damaged kernels manages concentrations of these emerging mycotoxins in grain; lower provisional grades were assigned to samples that contained the highest concentrations of enniatins, beauvericin, and moniliformin.