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Cellular Uptake and Transport of Zein Nanoparticles: Effects of Sodium Caseinate
- Luo, Yangchao, Teng, Zi, Wang, Thomas
T. Y., Wang, Qin
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013 v.61 no.31 pp. 7621-7629
- cell culture, culture media, cytotoxicity, fluorescence microscopy, human cell lines, nanoparticles, particle size, sodium azide, sodium caseinate, zein
- Cellular evaluation of zein nanoparticles has not been studied systematically due to their poor redispersibility. Caseinate (CAS)-stabilized zein nanoparticles have been recently developed with better redispersibility in salt solutions. In this study, zein–CAS nanoparticles were prepared with different zein/CAS mass ratios. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated good stabilities to maintain particle size (120–140 nm) in cell culture medium and HBSS buffer at 37 °C. The nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity for Caco-2 cells for 72 h. CAS not only significantly enhanced cell uptake of zein nanoparticles in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but also remarkably improved epithelial transport through Caco-2 cell monolayer. The cell uptake of zein–CAS nanoparticles indicated an energy-dependent endocytosis process as evidenced by cell uptake under blocking conditions, that is, 4 °C, sodium azide, and colchicine. Fluorescent microscopy clearly showed the internalization of zein–CAS nanoparticles. This study may shed some light on the cellular evaluations of hydrophobic protein nanoparticles.