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Comparative Analysis of Tunisian Wild Crataegus azarolus (Yellow Azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (Red Azarole) Leaf, Fruit, and Traditionally Derived Syrup: Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Aqueous-Acetone Extracts
- Belkhir, Manel, Rebai, Olfa, Dhaouadi, Karima, Congiu, Francesca, Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni, Amri, Mohamed, Fattouch, Sami
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013 v.61 no.40 pp. 9594-9601
- Crataegus monogyna, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, fruit peels, fruits, hydroxymethylfurfural, leaves, phenolic compounds, pulp, qualitative analysis, syrups
- Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (≈168 and 79 μmol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (≈378 and 161 μmol Fe²⁺/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content.