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Agronomic and nutraceutical potential of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) grown in Québec, Canada
- Sarraf, C., Desjardins, Y., Leonhart, S., Gosselin, A., Gosselin, G.
- Acta horticulturae 2013 no.1010 pp. 155-161
- Humulus lupulus, alpha acids, beta acids, bitter acids, chalcones, cultivars, functional foods, hops, inflorescences, leaves, proanthocyanidins, stems, temperate zones, Canada
- Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is a dioecious plant cultivated in most temperate areas of the world, mainly for its inflorescences known as hop cones. Hop cones contain hop bitter acids (α- and β-acids), and polyphenols such as prenylated chalcones and proanthocyanidins. Hop leaf may also contain polyphenols. The present work was conducted to determine the yield and the content of α- and β-acids, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol and proanthocyanidins in cones and leaves of 5 cultivars ('Cascade', 'Galena', 'Nugget', 'Willamette' and 'Brewers Gold') grown in Québec, Canada. Cones, leaves and stems of each plant were separated to measure fresh and dry weights of each part. α- and β-acids, desmethylxanthohumol and xanthohumol, proanthocyanidins and total polyphenols in the leaves and cones of the different cultivars were determined. Our data showed that ‘Nugget’ had the lowest cone yield (113.5 g of dry cones/plant) and 'Galena' had the highest (603.5 g of dry cones/plant). Cones of ‘Nugget’ had the highest concentration of α-acids (10.8% DM), proanthocyanidins (1.7% DM) and total polyphenols (4.6% DM) whereas cones of 'Galena' had the highest content of β-acids (6.7% DM) while cones of 'Brewers Gold' had the highest concentration of xanthohumol (0.6% DM). Leaves of ‘Nugget’ had the highest concentration of α-acids (0.09% DM), while those of 'Galena' had the highest content of proanthocyanidins (1.1% DM) and total polyphenols (3.18% DM). Leaves of 'Brewers Gold' had the highest concentration of xanthohumol (0.014% DM). No correlation was found between yield of cones and cones and leaves polyphenol content. Moreover, hop leaf contained small amounts of xanthohumol, α- and β-acids but higher amounts of proanthocyanidins and total polyphenols.