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Treatment of wood with polysilicic acid derived from sodium silicate for fungal decay protection

Chen, George C.
Wood and fiber science 2009 v.41 no.3 pp. 220
water content, wood treatment, acid treatment, wood preservatives, wood preservation, molds (fungi), decay resistance, sodium silicate, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor, water, sorption, Pinus taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua, white-rot fungi, brown-rot fungi
The aim of this study was to investigate safer, more inexpensive chemicals derived from sodium silicate that can be used to protect wood against fungal degradation. Desiccant and surfactant properties of sodium silicate-derived products have been used since the early 19th century and may find application for wood decay protection. In our study, wood was impregnated with 19.5% sodium silicate and acidified with 2.5% phosphoric acid for 2 da to produce polysilicic acid. After 2-wk daily water leaching, leached specimens had 0.2% weight loss by a brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and weight losses of 3.4-5.2% by a white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. The control had 32.2 and 30.2% weight losses by G. trabeum and T. versicolor, respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that polysilicic acid deposited mainly in the cell lumens. Exposure at 90% RH showed that polysilicic acid-treated loblolly pine or sweet gum that had been water-leached with 22-34% chemical retention absorbed more moisture than untreated wood. This indicated that decay resistance of polysilicic acid-treated wood is caused by a different mechanism than desiccation. One possible mechanism may be attributed to direct disruption of permeability of fungal cell membranes by the low-molecular-weight polysilicic acid.