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Potential of a Multiparametric Optical Sensor for Determining in Situ the Maturity Components of Red and White Vitis vinifera Wine Grapes

Agati, Giovanni, D’Onofrio, Claudio, Ducci, Eleonora, Cuzzola, Angela, Remorini, Damiano, Tuccio, Lorenza, Lazzini, Francesca, Mattii, Giovanni
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013 v.61 no.50 pp. 12211-12218
Vitis vinifera, anthocyanins, chlorophyll, cultivars, flavonols, fluorescence, high performance liquid chromatography, planting, ripening, total soluble solids, vineyards, viticulture, wine grapes
A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg–¹ fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.