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Co-contamination of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in food and human dietary exposure in three areas of China

Sun, G., Wang, S., Hu, X., Su, J., Zhang, Y., Xie, Y., Zhang, H., Tang, L., Wang, J.-S.
Food additives & contaminants 2011 v.28 no.4 pp. 461-470
aflatoxicosis, aflatoxin B1, chronic diseases, corn, dietary exposure, etiology, food consumption, food intake, fumonisin B1, humans, liver, liver neoplasms, neural tube defects, oils, public health, rice, wheat flour, China
Aflatoxins and fumonisins are ubiquitous foodborne toxicants and the co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in human foods represents a significant public health concern, which has been strongly associated with human aflatoxicosis, neural tube defects, as well as many types of primary cancers. In this study the co-contamination of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) in food and human dietary exposure was investigated in residents of three different areas of China. A total of 209 food samples were measured for AFB₁ and FB₁. The median AFB₁ levels were 13.5, 2.3 and 1.3 µg kg⁻¹ and the median FB₁ levels were 2.6, 0.4 and 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ in corn samples collected from Huaian (a high-risk area for oesophageal cancer), Fusui (a high-risk area for liver cancer) and Huantai (a low-risk area for both oesophageal and liver cancers), respectively. The median level of AFB₁ in plant oil of Fusui was the highest (52.3 µg kg⁻¹) among all food samples analysed. Co-contamination of these two mycotoxins was found in corn, rice and wheat flour. Based on measured food consumption data, the averaged daily dietary intake of AFB₁ was 0.397 µg (range = 0.269–1.218 µg) in residents of Huantai, 1.723 µg (0.224–49.772 µg) in Huaian, and 2.685 µg (1.006–14.534 µg) in Fusui. The averaged FB₁ daily dietary intake was 92.4 µg (range = 55.0–362.1 µg) for residents of Huantai, 460.0 µg (83.2–2894.5 µg) in Huaian, and 138.6 µg (30.0–10,541.6 µg) in Fusui. These data suggest that the co-exposure to AFB₁ and FB₁ in residents of rural China may contribute to the aetiology of human chronic diseases in high-risk areas.