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Co-contamination of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in food and human dietary exposure in three areas of China
- Sun, G., Wang, S., Hu, X., Su, J., Zhang, Y., Xie, Y., Zhang, H., Tang, L., Wang, J.-S.
- Food additives & contaminants 2011 v.28 no.4 pp. 461-470
- aflatoxicosis, aflatoxin B1, chronic diseases, corn, dietary exposure, etiology, food consumption, food intake, fumonisin B1, humans, liver, liver neoplasms, neural tube defects, oils, public health, rice, wheat flour, China
- Aflatoxins and fumonisins are ubiquitous foodborne toxicants and the co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in human foods represents a significant public health concern, which has been strongly associated with human aflatoxicosis, neural tube defects, as well as many types of primary cancers. In this study the co-contamination of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) in food and human dietary exposure was investigated in residents of three different areas of China. A total of 209 food samples were measured for AFB₁ and FB₁. The median AFB₁ levels were 13.5, 2.3 and 1.3 µg kg⁻¹ and the median FB₁ levels were 2.6, 0.4 and 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ in corn samples collected from Huaian (a high-risk area for oesophageal cancer), Fusui (a high-risk area for liver cancer) and Huantai (a low-risk area for both oesophageal and liver cancers), respectively. The median level of AFB₁ in plant oil of Fusui was the highest (52.3 µg kg⁻¹) among all food samples analysed. Co-contamination of these two mycotoxins was found in corn, rice and wheat flour. Based on measured food consumption data, the averaged daily dietary intake of AFB₁ was 0.397 µg (range = 0.269–1.218 µg) in residents of Huantai, 1.723 µg (0.224–49.772 µg) in Huaian, and 2.685 µg (1.006–14.534 µg) in Fusui. The averaged FB₁ daily dietary intake was 92.4 µg (range = 55.0–362.1 µg) for residents of Huantai, 460.0 µg (83.2–2894.5 µg) in Huaian, and 138.6 µg (30.0–10,541.6 µg) in Fusui. These data suggest that the co-exposure to AFB₁ and FB₁ in residents of rural China may contribute to the aetiology of human chronic diseases in high-risk areas.