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Rhizosphere microbial community manipulated by 2 years of consecutive biofertilizer application associated with banana Fusarium wilt disease suppression

Shen, Zongzhuan, Ruan, Yunze, Chao, Xue, Zhang, Jian, Li, Rong, Shen, Qirong
Biology and fertility of soils 2015 v.51 no.5 pp. 553-562
Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Fusarium, Fusarium wilt, Gymnascella, Leptosphaeria, Monographella, Neonectria, Pochonia, Proteobacteria, bacteria, bananas, biofertilizers, community structure, composts, correlation, disease control, disease incidence, fungi, genes, internal transcribed spacers, microbial communities, orchards, pathogens, pig manure, quality control, rhizosphere, ribosomal RNA, sampling, sequence analysis, soil-borne diseases, species diversity
In our previous work, applying biofertilizer containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 to a banana orchard infected by a serious Fusarium wilt disease over two consecutive years effectively controlled this soil-borne disease. In this study, deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences was performed to investigate how the composition of rhizosphere microbial community responded to the application of biofertilizer (BIO), pig manure compost (PM), and chemical fertilizer (CF) and to explore the potential correlation between the microbial community composition and the Fusarium wilt disease. A total of 104,201 bacterial 16S rRNA genes and 154,953 fungal ITS sequence reads were obtained after basic quality control, and Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycota were the most abundant bacterial and fungal phyla across all samples. Compared with the PM and CF control, the alpha diversity of bacteria significantly (P < 0.05) increased, whereas the value of the fungi was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced following two consecutive years of biofertilizer application. Moreover, the abundance of Acidobacteria (Gp1 and Gp3), Firmicutes, Leptosphaeria, and Phaeosphaeriopsis was significantly (P < 0.05) increased, while the abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the BIO treatment. Furthermore, the abundance of Fusarium, a causal pathogen for Fusarium wilt disease, was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the BIO treatment compared with the CF control and was slightly reduced (not significant) compared with the PM control. Interestingly, the disease incidence was negatively correlated with the enriched taxa of Acidobacteria (Gp1 and Gp3) and Firmicutes, Leptosphaeria, and Phaeosphaeriopsis but positively correlated with abundance of Proteobacteria, Ascomycota, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon, Gymnascella, Monographella, Pochonia, and Sakaguchia taxa. The results from this study suggest that 2 years of biofertilizer application manipulated the composition of rhizosphere microbial community and induced the Fusarium suppression by increasing bacterial diversity and potentially stimulating microbial consortia taxa, such as Acidobacteria (Gp1 and Gp3), Firmicutes, Leptosphaeria, and Phaeosphaeriopsis.