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Comparison of essential oil components and in vitro anticancer activity in wild and cultivated Salvia verbenaca

Russo, Alessandra, Cardile, Venera, Graziano, Adriana C.E., Formisano, Carmen, Rigano, Daniela, Canzoneri, Marisa, Bruno, Maurizio, Senatore, Felice
Natural product research 2015 v.29 no.17 pp. 1630-1640
DNA, DNA fragmentation, Salvia verbenaca, acetone, anticarcinogenic activity, apoptosis, caspase-3, cell membranes, chemical composition, essential oils, humans, melanoma, neoplasm cells, oils, palmitic acid
The objectives of our research were to study the chemical composition and the in vitro anticancer effect of the essential oil of Salvia verbenaca growing in natural sites in comparison with those of cultivated (Sc) plants. The oil from wild (Sw) S. verbenaca presented hexadecanoic acid (23.1%) as the main constituent, while the oil from Sc plants contained high quantities of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.7%), scarce in the natural oil (0.7%). The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the essential oils from Sw and Sc S. verbenaca were evaluated in the human melanoma cell line M14, testing cell vitality, cell membrane integrity, genomic DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Both the essential oils were able to inhibit the growth of the cancer cells examined inducing also apoptotic cell death, but the essential oil from cultivated samples exhibited the major effects.