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Regulation of flowering time by the histone deacetylase HDA5 in Arabidopsis

Luo, Ming, Tai, Ready, Yu, Chun‐Wei, Yang, Songguang, Chen, Chia‐Yang, Lin, Wen‐Dar, Schmidt, Wolfgang, Wu, Keqiang
The plant journal 2015 v.82 no.6 pp. 925-936
Arabidopsis, acetylation, acetyltransferases, assays, chromatin, flowering, fluorescence, gene activation, gene expression, genes, histone deacetylase, histones, lysine, mutants, phenotype, precipitin tests
The acetylation level of histones on lysine residues regulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases plays an important but under‐studied role in the control of gene expression in plants. With the aim of characterizing the Arabidopsis RPD3/HDA1 family histone deacetylase HDA5, we present evidence showing that HDA5 displays deacetylase activity. Mutants defective in the expression of HDA5 displayed a late‐flowering phenotype. Expression of the flowering repressor genes FLC and MAF1 was up‐regulated in hda5 mutants. Furthermore, the gene activation markers, histone H3 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation on FLC and MAF1 chromatin were increased in hda5‐1 mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that HDA5 binds to the chromatin of FLC and MAF1. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays and co‐immunoprecipitation assays showed that HDA5 interacts with FVE, FLD and HDA6, indicating that these proteins are present in a protein complex involved in the regulation of flowering time. Comparing gene expression profiles of hda5 and hda6 mutants by RNA‐seq revealed that HDA5 and HDA6 co‐regulate gene expression in multiple development processes and pathways.