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Resistance to lambda‐cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a resistant strain

Arouri, Rabeh, Le Goff, Gaelle, Hemden, Hiethem, Navarro‐Llopis, Vicente, M'saad, Mariem, Castañera, Pedro, Feyereisen, René, Hernández‐Crespo, Pedro, Ortego, Félix
Pest management science 2015 v.71 no.9 pp. 1281-1291
Ceratitis capitata, Citrus, European Union, bioassays, crops, cross resistance, deltamethrin, etofenprox, gene overexpression, genes, lambda-cyhalothrin, lethal concentration 50, malathion, population, pyrethrins, synergists
BACKGROUND: The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase in lambda‐cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. RESULTS: Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda‐cyhalothrin (6–14‐fold), achieving LC₅₀ values (129–287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda‐cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory‐selected resistant strain W‐1Kλ (205‐fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 P450 genes belonging to the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP12 families in C. capitata revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13–18‐fold) in the resistant strain. The W‐1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross‐resistance to etofenprox (240‐fold) and deltamethrin (150‐fold). CONCLUSION: Field‐evolved resistance to lambda‐cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W‐1Kλ. The levels of cross‐resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry