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Selection for Drought Resistance in Dry Bean Landraces and Cultivars

Muñoz-Perea, Carlos German, Terán, Henry, Allen, Richard G., Wright, James L., Westermann, Dale T., Singh, Shree P.
Crop science 2006 v.46 no.5 pp. 2111
Phaseolus vulgaris, beans, drought, water stress, drought tolerance, landraces, cultivars, irrigation, soil water content, dry matter accumulation, crop yield, harvest index, yield components, genetic variation, maturity groups, irrigation scheduling, irrigation rates, Idaho
Drought is a worldwide constraint to dry bean (L.) production. The objective of this research was to determine the response of three dry bean landraces and 13 cultivars evaluated under non-stressed (NS) and intermittent drought-stressed (DS) environments at Kimberly, Idaho in 2003 and 2004. The NS received seven irrigations in 2003 and five in 2004, and DS only four in 2003 and two in 2004. Most water use occurred within the top 0.5 m soil in both the NS and DS. Drought reduced biomass and seed yield, harvest index, and seed weight. Maturity was delayed in severe drought, but was similar or shortened by 1 to 6 d under moderate drought. Mean seed yield was reduced by 62% in 2003 and by 27% in 2004. Common Red Mexican and CO 46348 had high seed yield in both NS and DS environments, whereas ‘Matterhorn’ and ‘Othello’ yielded comparatively high under DS but moderately in NS environment. Drought resistance was inadvertently reduced from Common Red Mexican landrace to intermediate levels in ‘NW-63’ and ‘UI 239’ released in 1979 and 1993, respectively, and more recently released ‘LeBaron’ (1999) and ‘UI 259’ (1996) were susceptible. Conversely, drought resistance was increased in newer pinto (Othello 1986; CO 46348) and great northern (Matterhorn 1998) releases compared to the landraces and older cultivars tested for those market classes. Seed yield in NS and DS was positively correlated. Seed yield was also correlated with harvest index in DS and NS. All early maturing cultivars except Othello (e.g., UI 59, US 1140, Common Pinto, Topaz, UI 320, and LeBaron) were susceptible. Common Red Mexican did not have any reduction in seed weight due to drought stress. Drought resistant genotypes should be used for determining irrigation frequency, amount of water to be applied, and mechanisms of resistance and for identifying, mapping, and pyramiding favorable genes for dryland and irrigation-assisted sustainable production systems.