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Generation Means Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition in Peanut

Author:
Wilson, Jeffrey N., Baring, Michael R., Burow, Mark D., Rooney, William L., Chagoya, Jennifer C., Simpson, Charles E.
Source:
Journal of crop improvement 2013 v.27 no.4 pp. 430-443
ISSN:
1542-7536
Subject:
Arachis hypogaea, backcrossing, biodiesel, correlation, essential oils, esters, fatty acid composition, genes, genotype, linoleic acid, oleic acid, peanut oil, peanuts, progeny, saturated fatty acids, Texas
Abstract:
Optimizing the chemical composition of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil is essential for the production of biodiesel. Specifically, increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut oil and reducing the long chain saturated fatty acid concentration (which includes arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids) produces high-quality, stable methyl esters for biodiesel. Therefore, elucidating the inheritance of these factors and their relationships in peanut populations segregating for high oil is critical. The F₁, F₂, and backcross generations derived from two crosses, both involving a high oil concentration, low O/L runner breeding line (31-08-05-02) and two high O/L, normal oil concentration, adapted runner genotypes (Tamrun OL01 and Tamrun OL07), were evaluated in College Station, Texas, in 2010. The results from generation means analysis confirm that the high-oleic trait is under simple genetic control and can be manipulated through breeding and selection. Most fatty acids were controlled primarily by additive gene action, which is highly selectable. Dominance effects also played an important part in the inheritance of most fatty acids. Additive × dominance interaction was significant in the inheritance of stearic and arachidic acids in the cross involving Tamrun OL07. Oil concentration was also negatively correlated with oleic acid concentration in the F₂ generations of both crosses and positively correlated with arachidic acid in most of the segregating generations evaluated. Therefore, developing a peanut genotype high in oil and oleic acid concentration that has reduced long chain saturates will require the evaluation of large numbers of segregating progeny.
Agid:
351655