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Reactive Carbonyl Species Derived from Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

Wang, Yu, Cui, Ping
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.28 pp. 6293-6296
DNA, acrolein, alpha-linolenic acid, autoxidation, diet, ions, linoleic acid, lipid peroxidation, neoplasms, nitrogen, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, proteins, reactive oxygen species
Inflammation-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are associated with the development of cancer. ROS and RNS can directly damage biomacromolecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids. Lipid peroxidation, however, can result in reactive carbonyl species (RCS) that can also modify proteins and DNA. In contrast to an extensive literature on the modification of proteins and DNA from omega-6 fatty acids, there are few studies on RCS generation from other fatty acids, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, which are frequently consumed from the diet and diet supplements. Therefore, a comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids has been conducted. LC-MS/MS analysis of carbonyl-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) standards yielded characteristic fragment ions. Autoxidation products of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid were then derivatized with DNPH and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, generated more acrolein and crotonaldehyde than did linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids might be easily degraded to smaller monoaldehydes or dicarbonyls. Omega-3 fatty acids have been considered as health improvement components for a long time. However, on the basis of the results presented here, use of omega-3 fatty acids should be re-evaluated in vivo for safety purposes.