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Phosphorus and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in a Drained Calcareous Wetland Soil in Minnesota

Berryman, Erin M., Venterea, Rodney T., Baker, John M, Bloom, Paul R., Elf, Brandy
Journal of environmental quality 2009 v.38 no.5 pp. 2147
wetlands, calcareous soils, drained conditions, phosphorus, greenhouse gases, hydrology, land restoration, losses from soil, soil pore water, field experimentation, iron, calcium carbonate, soil chemistry, spatial variation, redox reactions, adsorption, water table, mineralization, nitrous oxide, methane, global warming, gas emissions, water quality, cost benefit analysis, Minnesota
Restoration of wetland hydrology can produce ecological benefits but may have unintended consequences. We examined effects of altered water level on release of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and greenhouse gases (GHG) in soil cores from a marsh being evaluated for restoration. We also measured field concentrations of DRP and other constituents in wetland porewater. Intact cores from a sampling location with higher Fe and lower calcium carbonate (CaCO3) contents released more DRP than another location, and displayed higher DRP under completely saturated compared to partly drained conditions. Porewater samples collected from the high-Fe location also contained higher DRP levels. Chemical data suggest that redox-driven reactions largely controlled DRP levels at the high-Fe site, while CaCO3 adsorption was more important at the low-Fe site. Over the long term, water table elevation may attenuate P draining from the wetland due to decreased mineralization. However, such measures may increase P release in the short term. Raising the water level in soil cores resulted in decreased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, increased methane (CH4) emissions, and an overall increase in total global warming potential (GWP). The proportion of total GWP contributed by N2O decreased from 14% to 1% as water level was raised, while the proportion contributed by CH4 increased from 10 to 20% to 60 to 80%. Restoration of hydrology in the Rice Lake wetland has the potential to affect both local water quality and global air quality. These combined effects complicate the cost-to-benefit analysis of such wetland restoration efforts.