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The effects of creatine supplementation on cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat in endurance-trained humans
- Kilduff, L.P., Georgiades, E., James, N., Minnion, R.H., Mitchell, M., Kingsmore, D., Hadjicharlambous, M., Pitsiladis, Y.P.
- International journal of sport nutrition & exercise metabolism 2004 v.14 no.4 pp. 443-460
- ambient temperature, creatine, exercise, exercise test, glucose, heart rate, heat, humans, males, metabolism, placebos, polymers, sports nutrition, sweat
- The effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermoregulatory responses, and on the capacity of trained humans to perform prolonged exercise in the heat was examined. Endurance-trained males (n = 21) performed 2 constant-load exercise tests to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % VO(2max) in the heat (ambient temperature: 30.3 ± 0.5 °C) before and after 7 d of Cr (20 g · d-1 Cr + 140 g · d-1 glucose polymer) or placebo. Cr increased intracellular water and reduced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses (e.g., heart rate, rectal temperature, sweat rate) but did not significantly increase time to exhaustion (47.0 ± 4.7 min vs. 49.7 ± 7.5 min, P = 0.095). Time to exhaustion was increased significantly in subjects whose estimated intramuscular Cr levels were substantially increased ("responders": 47.3 ± 4.9 min vs. 51.7 ± 7.4 min, P = 0.031). Cr-induced hyperhydration can result in a more efficient thermoregulatory response during prolonged exercise in the heat.