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Physiological and biochemical characteristics of the genus Penicillium fungi as producers of ergot alkaloids and quinocitrinins

Kozlovsky, A. G., Zhelifonova, V. P., Antipova, T. V., Zelenkova, N. F.
Applied biochemistry and microbiology 2011 v.47 no.4 pp. 426-430
Penicillium, biosynthesis, ergot alkaloids, fungi, genes, metabolites, metabolome, quinoline, zinc
Four cultures of fungi of the genus Penicillium belonging to Furcatum Pitt subgenus, such as P. citrinum Thom, 1910; P. corylophilum Dierckx, 1901; P. fellutanum Biourge, 1923; and P. waksmanii Zaleski, 1927, produced the ergot alkaloids, namely, agroclavine-I, and epoxyagroclavine-I; their N-N-dimers, such as dimer of epoxyagroclavine-I and the mixed dimer of epoxyagroclavine-I and agroclavine-I; and also quinoline metabolites, namely, quinocitrinin A and quinocitrinin B. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of the producers were studied. Optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of metabolome components were determined. Zinc additive to the medium stimulated the biosynthesis of the ergot alkaloids in all cases; quinocitrinines production was increased only in P. citrinum, and that was suppressed in P. corylophinum, P. fellutanum, and P. waksmanii. This testifies that genes of the biosynthesis pathways are located in the different clusters of the producers.