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Fungi of the genus Penicillium as producers of physiologically active compounds (Review)

Kozlovskii, A. G., Zhelifonova, V. P., Antipova, T. V.
Applied biochemistry and microbiology 2013 v.49 no.1 pp. 1-10
Penicillium, benzodiazepines, biosynthesis, diketopiperazines, ergot alkaloids, excretion, fungi, physicochemical properties, quinolines, secondary metabolites, taxonomy, tryptophan
Fungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from little studied habitats are able to synthesize both previously known and new physiologically active compounds with diverse structures. They include secondary metabolites of alkaloid nature, i.e., ergot alkaloids, diketopiperazines, quinolines, quinazolines, benzodiazepines, and polyketides. We discuss the use of profiles of secondary metabolites for taxonomy purposes. Studying the physicochemical characteristics of producers of biologically active compounds showed that the biosynthesis of alkaloids is initiated on the first days of cultivation and proceeds simultaneously with growth. The cyclic character of alkaloid accumulation was recorded related to the processes of alkaloid biosynthesis, excretion from cells, degradation in culture fluid, and consumption by cells. Synchronic variations in the concentrations of intracellular tryptophan and alkaloids are necessary for the regulation of the optimal quantity of tryptophan necessary for the culture.