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Directed modification of Escherichia coli metabolism for the design of threonine-producing strains

Yuzbashev, T. V., Vybornaya, T. V., Larina, A. S., Gvilava, I. T., Voyushina, N. E., Mokrova, S. S., Yuzbasheva, E. Yu., Manukhov, I. V., Sineoky, S. P., Debabov, V. G.
Applied biochemistry and microbiology 2013 v.49 no.9 pp. 723-742
Escherichia coli K12, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, coenzymes, energy efficiency, genes, genetic engineering, genomics, loci, researchers, synthetic biology, threonine
The modification of Escherichia coli K-12 metabolism leading to threonine overproduction is the most studied system in synthetic biology that has been used to elaborate the majority of the currently known approaches to constructing microbial producers. They include optimization of biosynthesis through search for rate-limiting stages, modification of substrate and product transport, elimination of side metabolic pathways and degradation systems, reinforcement of the regeneration of coenzymes that are required for product biosynthesis, and exclusion of futile cycles and metabolic pathways with low energy efficiency. Extensive research in functional genomics made it possible to selectively remove the “unnecessary genes,” the functions of which are useless for producing a strain or adversely affect its properties. In total, using various approaches to designing threonine-producing strains, over 150 genome loci that affect more than 30% genes in E. coli were directly modified, thus providing interesting data for researchers in the field of microbial synthesis, as well as in related biological sciences. This review is dedicated to the assessment of genetic engineering modifications in E. coli metabolism (primarily, on the basis of modern patent literature) that ensure threonine overproduction.