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Effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and 17 β-estradiol (E2) on growth, survival and histological structure of the internal organs in juvenile European catfish Silurus glanis (L.)

Król, Jarosław, Pobłocki, Wojciech, Bockenheimer, Tomasz, Hliwa, Piotr
Aquaculture international 2014 v.22 no.1 pp. 53-62
Silurus glanis, blood, catfish, diet, diethylstilbestrol, feminization, foods, gonads, hepatocytes, hepatosomatic index, liver, mortality, oxygen, pH, parenchyma, sex reversal, temperature
The effect of supplemented commercial diets with diethylstilbestrol (DES—15, 30 and 60 mg kg⁻¹) and 17 β-estradiol (E2—30 and 60 mg kg⁻¹), two chemicals commonly used in sex reversal procedure in fish, on survival and growth parameters of juvenile European catfish (Silurus glanis) was evaluated. During the two experiments, lasting 28 days each, fish were kept at temperature 25.2–26.5 °C, pH 7.4–9.3 and oxygen concentration 5.0–7.3 mg O₂dm⁻³. DES supplementation resulted in depressed growth rate of catfish. In experimental groups fed with E2, no negative effect on growth parameters was found. Both chemicals did not result in observed mortality. In all of the experimental DES groups, hepatosomatic index increased significantly, which suggests negative influence on physiological condition of catfish. DES supplementation significantly changed cytological factors of liver cells and caused hepatic alterations in parenchyma, such as vacuolization and blood congestion. Similarly, supplementation of E2 in food resulted in changes in cytological parameters of hepatocytes. However, E2 did not cause pathological changes within the liver tissue. Histological examination of the catfish gonads showed 19 and 38 % of sterile fish after treatment with 30 and 60 mg kg⁻¹of DES, respectively. The results suggest that DES served in food could be ineffective in hormonal feminization process of European catfish. No disturbances of sex differentiation process after E2 treatment were observed. However, slight feminization effect in the highest level of E2 treatment group was recorded.