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Effects of supplementary feeding in carp ponds on discharge water quality: a review
- Hlaváč, David, Adámek, Zdeněk, Hartman, Pavel, Másílko, Jan
- Aquaculture international 2014 v.22 no.1 pp. 299-320
- carp, dietary supplements, digestibility, ecosystems, energy, eutrophication, excretion, farming systems, grains, ingredients, nitrogen, nutrient availability, ponds, surface water, wastes, wastewater aquaculture, water quality
- Discharge of aquacultural wastewater can lead to eutrophication and disruption of natural ecosystems in receiving water bodies. A controlled waste production strategy is necessary, therefore, in order to maintain sustainable aquacultural growth. Along with fertilisation, supplementary feeding is the major source of allochthonous matter in aquaculture and management of aquacultural waste, therefore, should be approached through diet formulation and/or feeding strategy. The introduction of highly digestible feed has reduced solid waste excretion, and further reductions can be achieved through careful selection of ingredients and processing to improve nutrient availability. Dissolved nitrogen waste can be reduced by ensuring a balance between protein and energy, such that fish use non-protein sources as energy, while phosphorous waste can be reduced through careful ingredient selection and processing to improve digestibility. Thermal and mechanical treatment of feed cereals prior to application can also help decrease the amount of poorly or undigested feed. Finally, feeding practices that minimise wastage should also be explored as they have a significant impact, not only on waste output but also on the overall economy of carp pond farming.