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ELOVL2 gene polymorphisms are associated with increases in plasma eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid proportions after fish oil supplement
- AlSaleh, Aseel, Maniou, Zoitsa, Lewis, Fiona J., Hall, Wendy L., Sanders, Thomas A. B., O’Dell, Sandra D.
- Genes & nutrition 2014 v.9 no.1 pp. 362
- alleles, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fish oils, genetic variation, genotype, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil, omega-3 fatty acids, single nucleotide polymorphism
- Fish oil supplementation provides an inconsistent degree of protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be attributed to genetic variation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the elongation-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-2 (ELOVL2) gene have been strongly associated with plasma proportions of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). We investigated the effect of genotype interaction with fish oil dosage on plasma n-3 LC-PUFA proportions in a parallel double-blind controlled trial, involving 367 subjects randomised to treatment with 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1.51:1) or olive oil placebo for 6 months. We genotyped 310 subjects for ELOVL2 gene SNPs rs3734398, rs2236212 and rs953413. At baseline, carriers of all minor alleles had lower proportions of plasma DHA than non-carriers (P = 0.021–0.030). Interaction between genotype and treatment was a significant determinant of plasma EPA (P < 0.0001) and DHA (P = 0.004–0.032). After the 1.8 g/day dose, carriers of ELOVL2 SNP minor alleles had approximately 30 % higher proportions of EPA (P = 0.002–0.004) and 9 % higher DHA (P = 0.013–0.017) than non-carriers. Minor allele carriers could therefore particularly benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in maintaining high levels of plasma n-3 PUFA conducive to protection from CVD.