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Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene from Protein Stabilized Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Prepared by Homogenization–Evaporation Method

Yi, Jiang, Lam, Tina I., Yokoyama, Wallace, Cheng, Luisa W., Zhong, Fang
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2014 v.62 no.5 pp. 1096-1104
beta-carotene, color, cytotoxicity, emulsifiers, human cell lines, lipids, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, oxidative stability, oxygen, sodium caseinate, soy protein isolate, storage time, whey protein isolate
With a homogenization–evaporation method, β-carotene (BC) loaded nanoparticles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake by Caco-2 cells. The particle diameters of the BC loaded nanoparticles with 0.75% SC or 1.0% WPI emulsifiers were 75 and 90 nm, respectively. Mean particle diameters of three BC loaded nanoparticle nanoemulsions increased less than 10% at 4 °C while they increased more at 25 °C (10–76%) during 30 days of storage. The oxidative stability of BC loaded nanoparticles encapsulated by proteins decreased in the following order: SC > WPI > SPI. The retention rates of BC in nanoparticles were 63.5%, 60.5%, and 41.8% for SC, WPI, and SPI, respectively, after 30 days of storage at 25 °C. The BC’s chemical stability was improved by increasing the concentration of protein. Both the rate of particle growth and the total BC loss at 25 °C were larger than at 4 °C. The color of BC loaded nanoparticles decreased with increasing storage in the dark without oxygen, similar to the decrease in BC content of nanoparticles at 4 and 25 °C. Almost no cytotoxicity due to BC loaded nanoparticles cellular uptake was observed, especially when diluted 10 times or more. The uptake of BC was significantly improved through nanoparticle delivery systems by 2.6-, 3.4-, and 1.7-fold increase, respectively, for SC, WPI, and SPI, as compared to the free BC. The results of this study indicate that protein stabilized, BC loaded nanoparticles can improve stability and uptake of BC.