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Fertilizer Use and Wheat Yield in Central and Eastern European Countries from 1986 to 2005 and Its Implication for Developing Sustainable Fertilizer Management Practices

Grzebisz, Witold, Gaj, Renata, Sassenrath, G. F., Halloran, J. M.
Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2012 v.43 no.18 pp. 2358-2375
environmental policy, grain yield, nitrogen fertilizers, nutrient management, plant nutrition, weather, Europe
Economic and political challenges impact agricultural practices, production efficiency, and crop yields. We hypothesize that increased conversion efficiency of fertilizer to crop yield resulted from changes in fertilizer management in Central and Eastern European countries. Efficient nutrient management depends on fertilizer applied, management practices, and weather, which impact uptake, utilization efficiency, and crop yield. Trends in fertilizer consumption and wheat yields from 1986 to 2005 were studied for five countries. There were significant differences in yield gap, defined as the difference between potential and actual yields. Partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen fertilizer (N) is calculated from real and modified indices. A predictive metric is introduced based on the quantity of unworked, or nonproductive, N (Nᵤw). Sustainable cropping practices reduce Nᵤw and yield gap. Improved knowledge of crop responses to balanced plant nutrition at the country level contribute to improved agricultural and environmental policies and enhance production sustainability.