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Nitrogen Loss from Paddy Field with Different Water and Nitrogen Managements in Taihu Lake Region of China
- Yang, Shihong, Peng, Shizhang, Xu, Junzeng, Hou, Huijing, Gao, Xiaoli
- Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2013 v.44 no.16 pp. 2393-2407
- ammonia, fertilizers, field experimentation, grain yield, irrigation water, lakes, leaching, nitrogen, nonpoint source pollution, paddies, runoff, volatilization, China
- High rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer were applied to a paddy field in the Taihu Lake region of China to maximize crop production. Excessive N input has resulted in serious agricultural nonpoint pollution. Water and N management are two important approaches to regulating N loss from paddy fields. This study aimed to determine N losses through ammonia volatilization, runoff, and leaching from a paddy field during the rice-growing season in Taihu Lake region. Field experiments with two water and two N managements were conducted. The N exported to the environment through ammonia volatilization, runoff, and leaching from the paddy field was 37.2 kg N ha⁻¹ to 102 kg N ha⁻¹, with ammonia volatilization accounting for 69.6% to 83.5% of N loss. Ammonium and dissolved organic N significantly contributed to N loss through runoff and leaching. Controlled irrigation and site-specific N management (CS) significantly decreased N losses through ammonia volatilization, runoff, and leaching. Compared with the N and irrigation water inputs in traditional water and N management, those generated by controlled irrigation and site-specific N management were reduced by 34.6% to 43.0% and 59.2% to 63.3%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction in N and water input in the CS paddy field enabled the maintenance of high rice yield; it significantly increased N use efficiency by 15.1% to 34.9% and decreased the N exported to the environment by ammonia volatilization, runoff, and leaching by 53.1% to 56.1%. Therefore, the joint application of controlled irrigation and site-specific N management efficiently reduces agricultural nonpoint pollution through N loss from paddy fields.