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Anthocyanin Composition of Black Carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) Cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze

Cuevas Montilla, Elyana, Rodriguez Arzaba, Miriam, Hillebrand, Silke, Winterhaler, Peter
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2011 v.59 no.7 pp. 3385–3390
Antonina, Daucus carota subsp. sativus, anthocyanins, carrots, color, countercurrent chromatography, cultivars, cyanidin, detection limit, ferulic acid, galactosides, gallic acid, high performance liquid chromatography, ionization, mass spectrometry, pH, roots, sinapic acid
This study aimed to identify the pigment composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(glucosyl)galactosides acylated with sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were detected as major anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and with electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analyses. The preparative isolation of these pigments was carried out by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The color activity concept was applied to the isolated anthocyanins at three pH values. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(sinapoylglucosyl)galactoside was found to exhibit a lower visual detection threshold and a higher pH stability than cyanidin 3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl)galactoside and cyanidin 3-xylosyl(coumaroylglucosyl)galactoside. The color parameters of the fresh roots of the four cultivars were described by the CIELab coordinates L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h(ab) (hue angles). Total phenolics varied among the cultivars and ranged from 17.9 to 97.9 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (fw). For the content of monomeric anthocyanins, values between 1.5 and 17.7 mg/100 g fw were determined.