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Anthocyanin Composition of Black Carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) Cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze
- Cuevas Montilla, Elyana, Rodriguez Arzaba, Miriam, Hillebrand, Silke, Winterhaler, Peter
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2011 v.59 no.7 pp. 3385–3390
- Antonina, Daucus carota subsp. sativus, anthocyanins, carrots, color, countercurrent chromatography, cultivars, cyanidin, detection limit, ferulic acid, galactosides, gallic acid, high performance liquid chromatography, ionization, mass spectrometry, pH, roots, sinapic acid
- This study aimed to identify the pigment composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(glucosyl)galactosides acylated with sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were detected as major anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and with electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analyses. The preparative isolation of these pigments was carried out by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The color activity concept was applied to the isolated anthocyanins at three pH values. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(sinapoylglucosyl)galactoside was found to exhibit a lower visual detection threshold and a higher pH stability than cyanidin 3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl)galactoside and cyanidin 3-xylosyl(coumaroylglucosyl)galactoside. The color parameters of the fresh roots of the four cultivars were described by the CIELab coordinates L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h(ab) (hue angles). Total phenolics varied among the cultivars and ranged from 17.9 to 97.9 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (fw). For the content of monomeric anthocyanins, values between 1.5 and 17.7 mg/100 g fw were determined.