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Antioxidant Activity of Alkylresorcinols from Rye Bran and Their Protective Effects on Cell Viability of PC-12 AC Cells
- Gliwa, Julia, Gunenc, Aynur, Ames, Nancy, Willmore, William, Hosseinian, Farah S.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2011 v.59 no.21 pp. 11473-11482
- alkylresorcinols, cell viability, endosperm, fluorescent dyes, gas chromatography, genotype, mass spectrometry, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, rye, rye bran
- Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are phenolic lipids that are present in high amounts in the bran layer of different cereals. Rye samples, cultivar Hazlet, and a white rye genotype, RT202, were analyzed for their antioxidant properties and AR content and composition, based on six fractions of the bran, where 1 was the outermost fraction and 6 was the bran fraction closest to the endosperm. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis demonstrated that the most commonly found AR homologue in Hazlet rye is C19:0 and that the total amount of ARs decreases from the outermost to innermost fractions. The antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) for both white rye genotype RT202 and Hazlet brans was determined to decrease from the outermost fraction (136.05 μmol TE/g for Hazlet fraction 1 and 186.57 μmol TE/g for white rye genotype RT202 fraction 1) to the innermost fraction (9.84 μmol TE/g for Hazlet fraction 6 and 78.75 μmol TE/g for white rye genotype RT202 fraction 2). A positive relationship was seen with GC-MS results. Treatment of PC-12 AC cells with Hazlet fraction 1 increased mitochondrial biogenesis as determined using mitochondrial fluorescent dyes. In the presence of a prooxidant (AAPH), PC-12 AC cells were better protected from free radical attack when treated with Hazlet fraction 1 than with all other bran fractions. The results suggest that higher AR content in bran fractions confers antioxidant protection against free radical damage.