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Accumulation and Distribution Pattern of Macro- and Microelements and Trace Elements in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Berries
- Bertoldi, Daniela, Larcher, Roberto, Bertamini, Massimo, Otto, Stefan, Concheri, Giuseppe, Nicolini, Giorgio
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2011 v.59 no.13 pp. 7224-7236
- Vitis vinifera, alkaline soils, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, calcium, copper, grapes, harvest date, iron, magnesium, manganese, mercury, ripening, seeds, selenium, small fruits, sodium, strontium, vineyards, zinc, zirconium
- This paper describes the accumulation pattern of 42 mineral elements in Vitis vinifera L. berries during development and ripening and their distribution in berry skin, seeds, and flesh around harvest time. Grape berries were sampled in two different vineyards with alkaline soil and analyzed using a ICP-MS. Although elemental amounts were significantly different in the grapes from the two vineyards, the accumulation pattern and percentage distribution in different parts of the berries were generally quite similar. Ba, Eu, Sr, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn accumulate prior to veraison. Al, Ce, Dy, Er, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Sn, Zr, Th, Tm, U, Y, and Yb accumulate mainly prior to veraison but also during ripening. Ag, As, B, Cd, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, K, Li, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Se, and Tl accumulate progressively during growth and ripening. With regard to distribution, Ba, Ca, Eu, Fe, Mn, P, Sr, and Zn accumulate mainly in the seeds, Al, B, Ga, Sn, and the rare earths analyzed, except for Eu, accumulate mainly in the skin, and Ag, As, Cd, Cs, Cu, Ge, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Th, Tl, U, and Zr accumulate mainly in the flesh. A joint representation of the accumulation and distribution patterns for the elements in the berry is also given.