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Assessment of Soy Genotype and Processing Method on Quality of Soybean Tofu

Stanojevic, Sladjana P., Barac, Miroljub B., Pesic, Mirjana B., Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2011 v.59 no.13 pp. 7368-7376
beans, beta-conglycinin, gels, genotype, glycinin, hardness, pH, protein composition, protein subunits, rennet, soybeans, soymilk, temperature, tofu
Protein quality in six soybean varieties, based on subunit composition of their protein, was correlated with quality of the produced tofu. Also, protein changes due to a pilot plant processing method involving high temperature/pressure and commercial rennet as coagulant were assessed. In each soybean variety, glycinin (11S) and β-conglycinin (7S) as well as 11S/7S ratio significantly changed from beans to tofu. Between varieties, the 11S/7S protein ratio in seed indicated genotypic influence on tofu yield and gel hardness (r = 0.91 and r = 0.99, respectively; p < 0.05). Also, the 11S/7S ratio correlated with soymilk pH (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), leading to a relationship between soymilk pH with protein recovery and yield of tofu (r = 0.94 and r = 0.91, respectively; p < 0.05). The soybean β′-subunit of 7S protein negatively influenced tofu hardness (r = −0.91, p < 0.05). Seed protein composition and proportion of 7S protein subunits under the applied production method had an important role in defining tofu quality.