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The Importance of Phenolic Metabolism to Limit the Growth of Phakopsora pachyrhizi

Lygin, Anatoliy V., Li, Shuxian, Vittal, Ramya, Widholm, Jack M., Hartman, Glen L., Lozovaya, Vera V.
Phytopathology 2009 v.99 no.12 pp. 1412
Glycine max, soybeans, field experimentation, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, rust diseases, disease resistance, genetic resistance, genotype, cultivars, phenolic compounds, disease severity, resistance mechanisms, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phytoalexins, spore germination, quercetin, kaempferol, formononetin, lignification, cell wall components
Understanding the metabolic responses of the plant to a devastating foliar disease, soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, will assist in development of cultivars resistant to soybean rust. In this study, differences in phenolic metabolism were analyzed between inoculated and noninoculated plants using two susceptible and three resistant soybean genotypes with known resistance genes. Rust infection resulted in increased accumulation of isoflavonoids and flavonoids in leaves of all soybean genotypes tested. Although the soybean phytoalexin glyceollin was not detected in leaves of uninfected plants, accumulation of this compound at marked levels occurred in rust-infected leaves, being substantially higher in genotypes with a red-brown resistant reaction. In addition, there was inhibition of P. pachyrhizi spore germination by glyceollin, formononetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. However, there was no correlation between concentrations of flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol and rust-induced isoflavonoid formononetin in soybean leaves and rust resistance. Lignin synthesis also increased in all inoculated soybean genotypes whereas there was no significant difference in all noninoculated soybean genotypes. Cell wall lignification was markedly higher in inoculated resistant lines compared with inoculated susceptible lines, indicating a possible protective role of lignin in rust infection development.