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Effect of dietary protein on calpastatin in canine skeletal muscle
- Helman, E.E., Huff-Lonergan, E., Davenport, G.M., Lonergan, S.M.
- Journal of animal science 2003 v.81 no.9 pp. 2199-2205
- biopsy, calpain, calpastatin, chickens, corn gluten meal, dietary protein, dogs, experimental design, gluten, immunoblotting, molecular weight, muscle protein, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein degradation, protein sources, skeletal muscle
- The cysteine proteinases, μ- and m-calpain, along with their inhibitor, calpastatin, have been hypothesized to play a role in skeletal muscle protein degradation. Because nutrition has previously been shown to influence the expression of calpastatin, the working hypothesis of this study was that the quantity and source of dietary protein could influence regulation of the calpain system in muscle. The objectives to support this hypothesis were to determine the effects of dietary protein (amount and source) on the expression of calpastatin in canine skeletal muscle. This study comprised eight diets with seven dogs per diet. A biopsy was taken from the biceps femoris of all 56 dogs before and after 10 wk on their respective diets. This experimental design allowed examination of change within individual dogs. Diets 1 to 4 contained 12% total protein derived from chicken and/or corn gluten meal in ratios of 100:0, 67:33, 33:67, and 0:100%, respectively. Diets 5 to 8 contained 28% total protein with protein sources and ratios identical to Diets 1 to 4. Differences in calpastatin were examined qualitatively using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and semiquantitatively with densitometric analyses. The majority of the calpastatin blots showed three distinct calpastatin bands, the uppermost appearing at approximately 110 kDa. Diet 5 (28% CP, 100% chicken) resulted in an increase in the expression of the 110-kDa calpastatin band compared with the other two lower molecular weight bands in the same samples. Muscle from dogs fed Diet 5 showed greater increase in (P < 0.05) calpastatin intensity of the topmost band than those fed Diet 8 (0:100; chicken:corn gluten meal). Diet 5 (100:0; chicken:corn gluten meal) showed greater total calpastatin intensity than Diet 8 (0:100; chicken: corn gluten meal). These data suggest that dogs fed a diet containing a higher total percentage of chicken protein may have a greater potential to regulate calpain-mediated degradation of muscle protein than dogs fed diets containing corn gluten meal.