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Effect of Whey Protein Concentrate and Buttermilk Powders on Rheological Properties of Dough and Bread Quality
- Madenci, A. Büşra, Bilgiçli, Nermin
- Journal of food quality 2014 v.37 no.2 pp. 117-124
- bread dough, buttermilk, calcium, flat breads, food industry, magnesium, odors, powders, protein content, rheological properties, rheology, sensory evaluation, taste, whey protein concentrate
- Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) and buttermilk powder (BP) were used in leavened and unleavened flat bread dough at different levels (0, 4 and 8%). The effects of WPC and BP on dough rheology were evaluated with farinogram and extensogram parameters. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of breads were also studied. Generally, WPC and BP addition improved dough properties in terms of dough stability, resistance to extension and maximum resistance values. Protein content of the flat breads increased up to 14.6% with WPC usage. Significant (P < 0.05) increments were also observed in ash and mineral (Ca, K, Mg and P) contents of the leavened/unleavened flat bread with utilization of 8% WPC or BP. WPC at 8% level gave more yellowness (b*) on leavened flat bread surface compared with other leavened/unleavened flat breads. As a result of sensory analysis, leavened/unleavened flat bread containing BP has achieved higher taste, odor and overall acceptability scores than control and WPC‐containing breads. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Dairy by‐products are used in the food industry to improve nutritional, functional and sensory properties of different products. WPC and BP as dairy by‐products can be used for improvement of dough rheology. Usage of both dairy by‐products can be recommended for enrichment of leavened/unleavened flat breads in terms of mineral and protein content. Sensory properties of breads can be improved with BP usage in flat bread formulation.