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Land use/land cover classification of the vicinity of Lake Chad using NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat data

Babamaaji, Rakiya A., Lee, Jejung
Environmental earth sciences 2014 v.71 no.10 pp. 4309-4317
Landsat, flooded conditions, hydrologic cycle, lakes, land cover, land use change, rivers, shrublands, water management, Africa, Lake Chad
Lake Chad in Africa experienced severe droughts in the 1970s and 1980s and overexploitations of water resulting in a decline of water level in the Lake and surrounding rivers. Such droughts and overexploitation of water caused a significant change of land use and water management practices over the last 50 years. Understanding the change of land use and land cover is, therefore, crucial to understand disturbance of the water cycle around the Lake. The present study analyzed satellite images of Lake Chad from Landsat-MSS, Landsat-TM, and NigeriaSat-1 to investigate the change of land cover during three time periods: the 1970s, 1991, and 2006. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were performed for the land cover analysis. The overall accuracies of the classification of Landsat-TM and NigeriaSat-1 are 93.33 and 95.24 %, respectively. It is evident that a 35 % decrease of waterbodies occurred from the 1970s to 1991, but a slight increase of 0.9 % occurred between 1991 and 2006. The Shrubland has overtaken most of the waterlog areas, as much as seven times of what it was in the 1970s. The interpretation of NigeriaSat-1 images indicates that NigeriaSat-1 has similar capabilities to Landsat-TM and Landsat-MSS for the detection of various land cover types because land cover and land use features are discernible on the processed images, especially depletion of waterbodies and vegetation. These are similarities justify the quality of the NigeriaSat-1 images for land cover and land use analysis.