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Characterization and sources of extractable organic matter from sediment cores of an urban lake (Tasik Perdana), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Azizuddin, Aliaa Diyana, Ali, Nurul Azwani M., Tay, Kheng Soo, Abas, Mhd Radzi Bin, Simoneit, Bernd R. T.
Environmental earth sciences 2014 v.71 no.10 pp. 4363-4377
sediments, petroleum, steroids, anaerobic conditions, plankton, lakes, organic matter, biomarkers, lupane, emissions, Angiospermae, runoff, waxes, Malaysia
The extractable organic matter of sediment samples from six sampling sites in Lake Perdana, Kuala Lumpur, was analyzed to characterize the source inputs. The analysis of aliphatic homologous series indicated that terrestrial higher plant waxes can be assigned as the major sources of the identified aliphatic components in the lake sediments. The presence of an unresolved complex mixture of branched and cyclic compounds and a series of hopanes ranging from C₂₇ to C₃₅ reflected the contamination by petroleum residues from urban vehicular emissions brought in by runoff and fallout. The steroids present included stenols and stanols and showed an input of organic matter from higher plants. The detected pentacyclic triterpenoids comprised oleanane, ursane, lupane and friedelane skeletons including unsaturated oxygenated, mono-, di- and triaromatic counterparts. They are recognized as biomarkers for angiosperms. The presence of des-A-triterpenoids and their aromatized derivatives as the major diagenetic products of triterpenoids reflected the degradation of natural organic matter in the sediments occurring under mainly anoxic conditions. In addition, the presence of tetrahymanol and ββ-bishomohopan-32-ol indicated a minor algal/plankton and bacterial input to the sediments.