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Cytomorphological diversity in some selected members of Poaceae from Parvati Valley in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, India

Singhal, Vijay Kumar, Kumari, Vandna, Kumar, Puneet
Plant systematics and evolution 2014 v.300 no.6 pp. 1385-1408
Agrostis, Avena sativa, Bromus inermis, Calamagrostis, Cymbopogon, Digitaria, Festuca, Iseilema, Stipa, aneuploidy, chromosome number, chromosomes, diploidy, evolution, grasses, pollen, India
The present work includes detailed male meiotic studies on 46 species of grasses falling into 59 accessions from different localities of Parvati Valley in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh in the altitudinal range of 1,100 to 2,750 m. All the species have been studied cytologically for the first time from the study area. The meiotic chromosome count of n = 14 for Calamagrostis emodensis is the first ever chromosome report. Three species, namely Agrostis alba (n = 21), Avena byzantina (n = 21) and Bromus inermis (n = 14) have been studied cytologically for the first time from India. New intraspecific diploid/polyploid cytotypes have been reported for Arthraxon serrulatus (2n = 4x = 32), Iseilema laxum (2n = 12x = 60), Digitaria albudens (2n = 8x = 72), Festuca kashmiriana (2n = 2x = 14) and Stipa orientalis (2n = 2x = 20). The existence of variable number of B-chromosomes (2n = 60 + 0-5B) has been reported for the first time in the 12x cytotype of Iseilema laxum. Secondary associations of chromosomes in the tetraploid cytotype of Cymbopogon martini (n = 20) indicated its secondary polyploid nature. As many as 18 species showed various meiotic anomalies such as the phenomenon of cytomixis involving inter PMC migration of chromatin material, chromatin stickiness, interbivalent connections, abnormal spindle activity, presence of bridges and laggards during anaphases and telophases and abnormal sporads. These meiotic abnormalities consequently yielded sterile and heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains. The polyploidy and aneuploidy have played an active role in the evolution of grasses.