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Larvicidal activity of Solanum villosum Mill (Solanaceae: Solanales) leaves to Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) with effect on non-target Chironomus circumdatus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae)

Chowdhury, Nandita, Chatterjee, Soroj Kumar, Laskar, Subrata, Chandra, Goutam
Journal of pest science 2009 v.82 no.1 pp. 13-18
Anopheles subpictus, Chironomus, Solanum villosum, analysis of variance, biological control, correlation, equations, exposure duration, flavonoids, habitats, insects, instars, larvae, leaf extracts, leaves, mortality, oils, phenols, phytochemicals, qualitative analysis, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, toxicity
Chloroform-methanol extract of mature leaves from Solanum villosum Mill (Solanaceae: Solanales) was investigated to establish its biocontrol potentiality under laboratory condition against larval forms of Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae), the vector of human malaria. All the graded concentrations (30, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) showed significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality and results of regression equations revealed that the mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the extract (R ² close to 1). LC₅₀ values for all instars were between 24.20 and 33.73 ppm after 24 h and between 23.47 and 30.63 ppm after 48 h of exposure period. Significant changes in the larval mortality (F < 0.05) was also recorded between instars during single “ANOVA” analysis. This extract also demonstrated no toxicity to larvae of Chironomus circumdatus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) which were found to be present as most common non-target dipteran insect in the habitats of A. subpictus. Qualitative and chromatographic analysis of the solvent extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoids, volatile oil, steroids, phenols and flavonoids as major bioactive phytochemicals.