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Heavy metal removal and crude bio-oil upgrading from Sedum plumbizincicola harvest using hydrothermal upgrading process
- Yang, Jian-guang
- Bioresource technology 2010 v.101 no.19 pp. 7653-7657
- Sedum, additives, biosolids, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, laws and regulations, oils, temperature, China
- The main aim of this study was to separate heavy metals and yield crude bio-oil from a heavy metals hyperaccumulator harvest, Sedum plumbizincicola, through hydrothermal upgrading process. Parameters such as granularity, temperature, pressure, and duration were examined for their effect on the removal efficiency of heavy metals and upgrading efficacy of crude bio-oil. Maximum heavy metal removal efficiency of >99% and crude bio-oil upgrading efficiency of >63% were attained with an 18 mesh (1mm) granularity, and 22.1MPa at 370°C in the presence of 10mg/L additives for 60s. Under these optimized conditions, an oil phase (mostly composed of phenolic hydrocarbons and derivatives), a water phase raffinate containing Zn²⁺ (0.39g/L), Pb²⁺ (0.10g/L), Cu²⁺ (0.16g/L), and a solid phase (the hydrothermal upgrading residue, which completely satisfies the limit set by China legislation related to biosolids disposal, were obtained).