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Inhibition of the inflammatory and coagulant action of Bothrops atrox venom by the plant species Marsypianthes chamaedrys

Magalhães, Alcineide, Santos, Gleyce Barbosa dos, Verdam, Maria Christina dos Santos, Fraporti, Liziara, Malheiro, Adriana, Lima, Emerson Silva, Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2011 v.134 no.1 pp. 82-88
Bothrops atrox, Lamiaceae, adjuvants, anticoagulant activity, antivenoms, cytokines, inflorescences, leaf extracts, leukocytes, neutralization, prothrombin, snake bites, thromboplastin, traditional medicine, venoms, Brazil
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the efficacy of Marsypianthes chamaedrys Vahl (Lamiaceae) inflorescence and leaf extracts in inhibiting the inflammatory and coagulant actions of Bothrops atrox venom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Marsypianthes chamaedrys, which is used in Brazil as a folk medicine to treat snakebites and local inflammatory reactions, was tested in vitro to determine its ability to block indirect phospholipase A₂ and direct coagulant activities and in vivo to determine its ability to inhibit leukocyte migration and cytokine release. RESULTS: In vitro, Marsypianthes chamaedrys showed antiphospholipase A₂ and anticoagulant activities; the latter activity was also confirmed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in the absence of venom. Of the extracts used, those obtained from the crushed plant had the greater inhibitory activity in in vitro tests, showing that biological activity is affected by the way extracts are obtained. In vivo, Marsypianthes chamaedrys inhibited leukocyte migration and the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α without altering the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: As specific antivenoms are not effective in neutralizing the local action of Bothrops venoms, characterization of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms induced by Marsypianthes chamaedrys is of vital importance if the extracts of this plant species are to be used in future as adjuvants in the treatment of snakebites.