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Cell Wall Hemicellulose Contributes Significantly to Aluminum Adsorption and Root Growth in Arabidopsis

Yang, Jian Li, Zhu, Xiao Fang, Peng, You Xiang, Zheng, Cheng, Li, Gui Xin, Liu, Yu, Shi, Yuan Zhi, Zheng, Shao Jian
Plant physiology 2011 v.155 no.4 pp. 1885-1892
Arabidopsis thaliana, adsorption, aluminum, cell walls, enzyme activity, gene expression regulation, genes, hemicellulose, pectins, rhizodeposition, root growth, roots, xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase
The cell wall (CW) has been recognized as the major target of aluminum (Al) toxicity. However, the components responsible for Al accumulation and the mechanisms of Al-induced CW function disruption are still elusive. The contribution of different CW components (pectin, hemicellulose 1 [HC1], and HC2) to adsorb Al and the effect of Al on xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolyase activity were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in this study. A fractionation procedure was optimized to effectively extract different CW components, especially to prevent the HC fraction from pectin contamination. When CW materials extracted from Al-treated roots (50 μM Al for 24 h) were fractionated, about 75% of CW Al accumulated in the HC1 fraction. A time-dependent kinetic study showed that only when the HC1 fraction was removed was the amount of Al adsorbed decreased sharply. In vivo localization of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity showed that Al greatly inhibited this enzyme activity within 30 min of exposure, which was concomitant with Al-induced callose deposition in roots. Results from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that three genes may constitute the major contributors to XET activity and that the inhibition of XET activity by Al is caused by transcriptional regulation. These results, to our knowledge for the first time, demonstrate that HC is the major pool for Al accumulation. Furthermore, Al-induced reduction in XET activity could play an important role in Al-induced root growth inhibition.