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Non-targeted metabolomic approach reveals urinary metabolites linked to steroid biosynthesis pathway after ingestion of citrus juice

Medina, S., Ferreres, F., García-Viguera, C., Horcajada, M.N., Orduna, J., Savirón, M., Zurek, G., Martínez-Sanz, J.M., Gil, J.I., Gil-Izquierdo, A.
Food chemistry 2013 v.136 no.2 pp. 938-946
Citrus, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, food intake, ingestion, juices, metabolites, principal component analysis, steroids, urine
Citrus juice intake has been highlighted because of its health-promoting effects. LC–MS based metabolomics approaches are applied to obtain a better knowledge on changes in the concentration of metabolites due to its dietary intake and allow a better understanding of involved metabolic pathways. Eight volunteers daily consumed 400mL of juice for four consecutive days and urine samples were collected before intake and 24h after each citrus juice intake. Urine samples were analysed by nanoHPLC-q-TOF, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and Student’s t-test (p<0.05). PCA showed a separation between two groups (before and after citrus juice consumption). This approach allowed the identification of four endocrine compounds (tetrahydroaldosterone-3-glucuronide, cortolone-3-glucuronide, testosterone-glucuronide and 17-hydroxyprogesterone), which belonged to the steroid biosynthesis pathway as significant metabolites upregulated by citrus juice intake. Additionally, these results confirmed the importance of using the non-targeted metabolomics technique to identify new endogenous metabolites, up- or down-regulated as a consequence of food intake.